I am a PhD student at the Program for History, Philosophy and Sociology of Science of the Hebrew University. In my doctoral dissertation, under the guidance of Dr. Othniel Dror and Dr. Jonathan Dekel-Chen, I deal with the intellectual biography of Alexander R. Luria, as a key figure in the development of neuropsychology in the Soviet Union. The attempt of Luria and his circle to introduce a materialist and at the same time non-reductionist approach to the research of brain and mind remains very relevant nowadays and for the last decades, being neurosciences at the forefront of scientific endeavor. Through the prism of an intellectual biography I examine processes and factors that shape the creation and acceptance of a scientific knowledge. Dealing with intellectual biography allows me to focus on the ways in which two contradictory-complementary aspects of science shape together the scientific activity. From my perspective, science is, on the one hand, a local social institution influenced by social, political and ideological processes of the given society, and on the other hand is a trans-national system that declares a shared professional ethos and aspires to establish a universal objective knowledge. The first aspect, science as a local social institution, also allows me to deal with questions relating to the general history of the Soviet Union, such as the degree of cultural isolation during various relevant periods of the Soviet history, the role of scientists in the socio-political system of the Soviet Union, and the impact of ideology in scientific research.